Puteri NurIndah Puteri NurIndah: July 2013

Monday, July 22, 2013

5 generation of computer


The first generation of computer were huge,slow ,expensive and often unrealiable.In 1946 ,two Americans,Presper Eckert and Willian Maunchly build the ENIAC (electronic numerical intergrator and computer),It use vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1.
In 1951,Eckert and Maunchly build the UNIVAC,which is could calculate at the rate of 10000 addition per second.

New invention of hardware were needed with the new computer technology.

Vacuum tube
  • was an extreamly important step of the advancement of computers.
  • In a computer a vacuum tube which is an electronic tube about the size of light bulbs,was used as the internal computer component.Thousan of them are used.
Punched card
  • was used to store data.
Magnetic tape
  • was faster and more compact method of storing data.
  • became more reliable and cost-effective.

  • ·The vacuum tubes generate a great deal of heat causing many  problems in temperature  regulation and climate contol.
  • · The tube also burnt out frequently.
  •  People operating the computer did  not know that the problem was the programming machine
  • The second generation computer scientist invented something new due to lots of problem created by vacuum tubes.


-The creation of transistor spark the production of a wave of second generation computer.
-Transistor was small device use to transfer electronic signal across a resister.

Advantages of the transistor;
  • smaller than vacuum tube.
  • needed no warm up time
  • less energy
  • much less heat
  • faster and more reliable


In this generation,the IBM 370 series were introduce in 1964.It came in several models and sizes.It was used for business and scientific programs.Other computer models introduce were CDC 7600 and B2500.
The development of intergrated circiut (IC),signal the beginning of the third generation computers.Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961 at the Silicone Valley.
It is a complete electronic circuit on asmall chip of silicone.Which is also known as semi conductor.Other than  that ,the Magnetic Core Memory  was  replaced by s device called the microchip.Also the first 256 bit RAM  was introduce and it was the basis for development of 1k bit RAM .

A new concept in this generation was that of family of computer which allowed computer to be upgrade and expanded as necessary.
·         Silicone chips were reliable,compact and cheaper.
·         Sold hardware and software separately which created the software industry.
·         Customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks)


It took only 55 years for the 4 generation to envolve.The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of the computer inventions.
Example type of computer models:
  •   Apple Macintosh
  • IBM
  •  DELL
  •  ACER  

In Intel created the first microprocessor .In 1976,Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer .Then,in 1981,IBM introduced  its first personal computer.
During the fourth generation darware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices invented.A microprocessor  is a specialized chip which is developed for computer memory and logic.
The microprocessor is a large-scale intergrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors.The transistor on this one chip are capable of performing all of functions of a computer’s central processing unit.

·         Computersbecome 100 times smaller than ENIAC  (Elevtronic Numerical Intergrator and Computer)
·         Gain speed ,reliability,storage capacity
·         Personal and Software industry boomed.


The fifth generation of computer technologically advance and are still being development to become more efficient.
The inventions of new hardware technology in the fifth generation have grown rapidly including many other modern computer devicessuch as:
  • ·         Silicone chip
  • ·         Processor
  • ·         Robotics
  • ·         Virtual reality
  • ·         Intelligent systems
  • ·         Programs which translate languages


After the fifth generations computer,the technology of computer has become more advance,modern, and sophisticated.The latest invention in thee era of computer are:
  • ·         Super computer
  • ·        Mainframe computer
  • ·         Mini computer
  • ·         Personal computer
  • ·         Mobile computer 

In the new era of computers, expert systems such as teleconferencing and speech-recognition system have been inverted as part of modern world communication tools.


mini computer



super computer
personal computer

mobile computer

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